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14 Oct 2019

# Category: Class Notes

## Properties of optical fibers

The refractive index in the core material of the fiber varies due to variation in the composition of the core material which give rise to two types of optical fibers. These are; Step Index fiber Graded Index fiber Further, on the basis of guided optical…

## What is Total Internal Reflection (TIR)?

Total Internal Reflection Total Internal Reflection (TIR) is the principle of signal transmissions in optical fibers. The understanding of the critical angle is important to understand the TIR. Do you know at what time the incident angle is called the critical angle? If no I will…

## Magnetic Units and Conversion Factors

In this table, basic physical quantities that are used in magnetic materials are included. The symbol and conversion from one magnetic unit to the other. This conversion will be helpful in numerical problems. Quantity Symbol SI Unit CGS emu Unit Conversion Remarks Magnetic Induction or…

## Specifications of Different Optical Fibers

Single mode step-index fiber: Core diameter: 7 to 11 μm Cladding diameter: generally 125 μm Coating diameter: 200 to 300 μm Numerical aperture: 0.08 to 0.15 Performance: 2 to 5 dB/km with a scattering limit of around 1 dB/km at a wavelength of 0.85 μm Bandwidth: Greater than…

## Signal Attenuation in an Optical Fiber

Signal attenuation within the optical fibers is usually expressed in the logarithmic unit of the decibel. Decibel is defined by the input and output power ratio of the signal for a specific operating wavelength. The overall signal attenuation is defined by the number of dB,…

## Total Internal Reflection- Optical Fiber

Ray Theory Transmission Let’s see what happens when a light ray encounters a boundary separating two different media? In the figure given below, n1 and n2 are the refractive indices of the two media. Here n1 & n2 represents the denser and rare mediums respectively. The…

## Resistors in Series |Ohms Law

Resistors in Circuits There are three things, in Ohm’s Law Resistance Voltage Current In this equation if I increases then R will decrease. It means the result of product remain same i.e., V. If voltage remain constant between two points it means it is balanced…

## Semiconductor LASER Construction and Working

Introduction to Semiconductor LASER In this video tutorial of semiconductor LASER the following points which given below are explained. The GaAs is responsible for the optical properties when electron and holes recombines in depletion region. As you know in Si/Ge semiconductor material when this recombination…

## Semiconductor p and n Junction Diode Animation

Semiconductor Junction Diode Working In this video lecture, a p-n junction formation and working are explained by using the animation and other scientific tools. As you know that p-n junction is the basic building block of all semiconductor devices. So its understanding is the…

## p n junction energy band diagram

Introduction of Energy Band Diagram in Semiconductor This video provides knowledge on how to draw the energy band diagram for a pn junction. If somebody is able to understand pn junctions well, it becomes quite easy for him to understand all other semiconductor devices. So,…

## p-n Junction Diode Working Explanation

P-N Junction Diode Introduction: In this lecture a p-n junction formation and working is explained by using the animation and other scientific tools. As you know that p-n junction diode is the basic building block of all semiconductor devices. So its understanding is the foundation…

## Download Basics of Optical Fibre Communications

In this article, mainly the basics of the OPTICAL FIBRE are explained. Starting from the concept of Total Internal reflection (TIR), the type of optical fibers, on the basis of refractive indices are explained. Types of mode like single mode and multimode explained with normalized…

## Download Notes For LASER Related Material

Introduction: LASER light amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation From the basics of laser like absorption, spontaneous emission and stimulated emission with basic picture of diagram is explained. Then after the transition probability is explained in these three process with simple examples. Relationship of…

## Time Dilation |Special Theory of Relativity|

In this video lecture I have discussed about the time dilation, which comes under the Special theory of Relativity Unit. To understand this concept the basics like frame of reference, Observer and events idea should be clearer. Here both S and S’ frame are considered…

## Space Quantization and Atomic Dipole Moment

In quantum mechanics, we know the discreteness of the possible spatial orientations of the angular momentum of an atom (or another particle or system of particles, molecules) with respect to any arbitrarily selected axis (here z-axis). Space quantization is manifested in that the projection Lz…

## What is Magnetization and Magnetic Intensity?

To explain the type of magnetic material and its behavior in the presence of external magnetic field the concept of magnetization play an important role. How the magnetization can be understand and further the intensity of magnetization is explained here in this video which I…

## Gauss’s Law in Electrostatics

The Gauss law is used to study the electric flux and electric field in terms of its application. The point which is necessary to keep in mind is about to the surface. The surface is closed or open it matters for physical interpretation. Using some supporting…

## Displacement Current and Ampere’s law

Displacement current you can understand by the time-varying electric field. Similar as in the Faraday’s law you have used the time-varying magnetic field to produce the EMF. Now the question is why do you need to define this displacement current and what is it? Is…

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