## Properties of optical fibers

The refractive index in the core material of the fiber varies due to variation in the composition of the core material which give rise to two types of optical fibers. These are; Step Index fiber Graded Index fiber Further, on the basis of guided optical…

## What is Total Internal Reflection (TIR)?

Total Internal Reflection Total Internal Reflection (TIR) is the principle of signal transmissions in optical fibers. The understanding of the critical angle is important to understand the TIR. Do you know at what time the incident angle is called the critical angle? If no I will…

## Magnetic Units and Conversion Factors

In this table, basic physical quantities that are used in magnetic materials are included. The symbol and conversion from one magnetic unit to the other. This conversion will be helpful in numerical problems. Quantity Symbol SI Unit CGS emu Unit Conversion Remarks Magnetic Induction or…

## Specifications of Different Optical Fibers

Single mode step-index fiber: Core diameter: 7 to 11 μm Cladding diameter: generally 125 μm Coating diameter: 200 to 300 μm Numerical aperture: 0.08 to 0.15 Performance: 2 to 5 dB/km with a scattering limit of around 1 dB/km at a wavelength of 0.85 μm Bandwidth: Greater than…

## Signal Attenuation in an Optical Fiber

Signal attenuation within the optical fibers is usually expressed in the logarithmic unit of the decibel. Decibel is defined by the input and output power ratio of the signal for a specific operating wavelength. The overall signal attenuation is defined by the number of dB,…

## Total Internal Reflection- Optical Fiber

Ray Theory Transmission Let’s see what happens when a light ray encounters a boundary separating two different media? In the figure given below, n1 and n2 are the refractive indices of the two media. Here n1 & n2 represents the denser and rare mediums respectively. The…

## Basic Introduction of Optical Fiber- Refractive Index

Some of the questions that arise about the optical fibers (OF) are: What is the structure of an optical fiber? How does light propagate along a fiber? What materials are used to make optical fibers? What is the process of making the OF? What is…

## Resistors in Series |Ohms Law

Resistors in Circuits There are three things, in Ohm’s Law Resistance Voltage Current In this equation if I increases then R will decrease. It means the result of product remain same i.e., V. If voltage remain constant between two points it means it is balanced…

## Quiz trial -2 Quantum Mechanics. Superconductivity and Magnetic Materials

In this quiz, I have used mathematical equations to judge the output, in HTML its little difficult to write the math equations. These are two basic questions of the quantum mechanics.

## Classical Theory of Ferromagnetic Material Concept

Concept of Classical theory of Ferromagnetic Material is explained here with the supporting physical concepts (SPC’s) This concept will be helpful to understand the B H Curve explanation.

## Download Physics Notes Hand Written| apniPhysics

Hand Written Physics Notes In this section, I should say the post, physics notes are uploaded. These notes are related to the basic concept of Physics which Under Graduate students use in their courses. I have experienced that along with video tutorials these notes help…

## Semiconductor LASER Construction and Working

Introduction to Semiconductor LASER In this video tutorial of semiconductor LASER the following points which given below are explained. The GaAs is responsible for the optical properties when electron and holes recombines in depletion region. As you know in Si/Ge semiconductor material when this recombination…

## Semiconductor p and n Junction Diode Animation

Semiconductor Junction Diode Working In this video lecture, a p-n junction formation and working are explained by using the animation and other scientific tools. As you know that p-n junction is the basic building block of all semiconductor devices. So its understanding is the…

## Physics Principles around us| What Microphone is

Microphone Definition Microphone is a transducer that transforms the sound energy into electrical signal. Note the point, this is key for any discovery. As I told you that I have started a video lecture series based on physics principle around us. How these basic laws…

## p n junction energy band diagram

Introduction of Energy Band Diagram in Semiconductor This video provides knowledge on how to draw the energy band diagram for a pn junction. If somebody is able to understand pn junctions well, it becomes quite easy for him to understand all other semiconductor devices. So,…

## Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Construction and Working

The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) has three main components, the first one is electron gun, second deflecting plates, and the third one luminescent screen. The CRT principle used in cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) and Tube-based old TVs. Construction of Cathode Ray Tube CRT: In this…

## p-n Junction Diode Working Explanation

P-N Junction Diode Introduction: In this lecture a p-n junction formation and working is explained by using the animation and other scientific tools. As you know that p-n junction diode is the basic building block of all semiconductor devices. So its understanding is the foundation…

## de Broglie waves or Matter Waves- download notes

de Broglie Waves In quantum mechanics we deal with the microscopic particles like, electron, proton, neutron and alpha particles. When we say deal it means the dynamics of these particles, from that we observe the velocity, momentum, energy etc of the particle. de Broglie waves…

## Download Basics of Optical Fibre Communications

In this article, mainly the basics of the OPTICAL FIBRE are explained. Starting from the concept of Total Internal reflection (TIR), the type of optical fibers, on the basis of refractive indices are explained. Types of mode like single mode and multimode explained with normalized…

## Download Fundamental Optical Fibre’s Note

Optical Fiber LINK TO DOWNLOAD: https://goo.gl/hFwErZ

## Lorentz Transformation -Special Theory of Relativity

Special Theory of Relativity To understand the concept of Lorentz Transformation one need three basic supporting physical concepts, which are given below; Speed of light in all inertial frames remain constant, it means speed doesn’t change due to relative motion. There are two frame of…

## Ampere’s Circuital Law and its Application (Hindi & English)

Introduction to Ampere’s Circuital law A detail analysis of Ampere’s Circuital law is discussed here, focus is only on physical concept not on derivation. If you find any difficulty at any point please share the comment. A useful law that relates the net magnetic field…

## Download Notes For LASER Related Material

Introduction: LASER light amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation From the basics of laser like absorption, spontaneous emission and stimulated emission with basic picture of diagram is explained. Then after the transition probability is explained in these three process with simple examples. Relationship of…

## Nuclear Physics: Fundamentals and Applications by Prof. H.C. Verma

NPTEL plateform Nuclear Physics remain a subject of interests since the development of modern physics in early 19th century for all the scholars. Dr. H C Verma, who retired Professor of physics from Department of Physics,IIT Kanpur prepared many video lectures for the benefits of…

## De Broglie equation solution and clear conceptual explanation (Hindi & English)

The basic concept of the de broglie waves that shows the dual nature of matter is explained here conceptually, aapko samajh aayega ki why he use this formula for wave and matter? and when any matter can show the dual nature? what is the condition…

## Basics of B-H Curve and Hysteresis Loop with Supporting Physical Concepts

Basics of B-H Curve and Hysteresis Loop Basics of B-H Curve and Related Physical Concepts are discussed in this video lecture. Atomic dipole moment, domains and domain walls along with magnetizing field supporting physical concept are used to explain the actual concept of B-H…

## B H Curve | Hysteresis Loss Explained

The B-H Curve is explained in this video along with derivation.

## Introduction to the Fourier Transformation-Engineering Mathematics/Examples-Part2

Introduction to the Fourier Transformation with an example is discussed here-Part 2

## Introduction to the Fourier Transformation-Engineering Mathematics-Part1

In this video lecture the basic Introduction of the Fourier Transformation is discussed.

## Six Major Misconceptions in LASER what Student Thinks ?

Six Major Misconceptions in LASER what Student Thinks about some physical concepts? Like what is ground and excited state of the students? They just explain only about energy not reason how? Also like when atom absorbs the energy it goes in to the excited state,…

## Problems on Acceptance Angle, Critical Angle and Numerical Aperture & Analysis of Optical Fiber

Problems with Acceptance Angle, Critical Angle and Numerical Aperture & Analysis of Optical Fiber

## Derivation for Velocity Addition in Special Theory of Relativity

The velocity addition topic into the special theory of relativity is interesting one, where in addition to the two observers (two frames) included; (1) an idea of the additional object that might be a ball, a rocket or any thing that can be thrown or…

## Derivation of Relativistic Kinetic Energy and Total Energy

In classical mechanics, the mass of a moving particle is independent of its velocity. But in special theory of relativity one can see that mass is also relative. In the special theory of relativity, length, time, velocity and mass is relative. If these variables are…

## Relativistic Mass in Special Theory of Relativity Part 2 Engineering Physics

In classical mechanics, mass of a particle is considered to be a constant quantity and independent of its velocity. However in relativistic mechanics the length, time and mass also depends on the relative velocity.Suppose two similar balls B1 and B2 we have, velocity (u’ and…

## Relativistic Mass in Special Theory of Relativity

In classical mechanics, mass of a particle is considered to be a constant quantity and independent of its velocity. However in relativistic mechanics the length, time and mass also depends on the relative velocity.Suppose two similar balls B1 and B2 we have, velocity (u’ and…

## Length Contraction | Special Theory of Relativity|

In this video lecture I have discussed about the Length Contraction. To understand it the basic information about the two transformations (Galilean and Lorentz) are important. It is based on the basic concept of Frame of References, here two frames S and S’ are considered….

## Galilean Transformation |Special Theory of Relativity|

The Einstein in 1905 introduce the concept of Special Theory of Relativity. In our daily life we see the effects of the relative motion, for an example if suppose there are two cars one is BLACK and the other RED and both are moving into…

## Time Dilation |Special Theory of Relativity|

In this video lecture I have discussed about the time dilation, which comes under the Special theory of Relativity Unit. To understand this concept the basics like frame of reference, Observer and events idea should be clearer. Here both S and S’ frame are considered…

## How to Understand Atomic Dipole Moment Concept

In this video lecture some basics of the Atomic Dipole Moment are discussed. How one atom can be equivalent to the tiny bar magnet? and when an atom is placed in a uniform magnetic field the how to find out the atomic dipole moment ?…

## Space Quantization and Atomic Dipole Moment

In quantum mechanics, we know the discreteness of the possible spatial orientations of the angular momentum of an atom (or another particle or system of particles, molecules) with respect to any arbitrarily selected axis (here z-axis). Space quantization is manifested in that the projection Lz…

## Particle in a One Dimensional Box- Quantum Mechanics

In this video Lecture you will found: The Eigen function and Eigen values of a free particle and relation with the momentum and de Broglie wavelength.What is free particle? a particle is free if that is not bound by any internal or external force (it…

## de Broglie Waves-Matter Waves and its Wavelength

de Broglie Waves or Matter Waves and its Wavelength is discussed in this lecture. de Broglie waves are associated with a materialistic particle. A matter can show the dual nature: particle as well as the wave nature [ as you have seen in case…

## Schrodinger’s Time Dependent and Time Independent Wave Equations

Schrodinger’s Wave Equations, time independent and time dependent’s derivation is discussed here.

## Concept of Wave Packet, Phase Velocity & Group Velocity for de Broglie Waves

de Broglie Waves: Concept of Wave Packet, Phase & Group Velocity are discussed in this video.

## Beta decay does electron exist inside the atomic nucleus?

Beta-decay of nucleus shows that electron emits from the nucleus. Does electron exist inside the nucleus? This problem can be solved by using Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle by using the minimum uncertainties of position and momentum.

## How to find Normalization Constant of a Wave Function & Physical Meaning

This problem is related to the particle in a box or in an infinite potential well. Particle representation by a wave function that is mathematical function no physical significance of that. How to find it for the given dimensions, means within the potential well? Explained…

## The Pauli’s Exclusion Principle/Graduate Quantum Physics Online

The Pauli’s Exclusion Principle is explained with examples, Anti symmetric wave function for identical particles/Graduate Quantum Physics Online

## The Symmetry Character of Various Particles/ Graduate Physics Online

The Symmetry Character of Various Particles, electron, proton, positron, neutron, muon, alpha particle, He atom, photon and deutron/ Graduate Physics Online

## Exchange Forces & The Helium Atom|Quantum Mechanics Graduate Physics

Exchange Forces & The Helium Atom|Quantum Mechanics Graduate Physics How to write anti symmetric eigen function for a quantum system, example of helium atom.

## The Magnetic Susceptibility and its Mathematical Formulation

In this video lecture I have derived the formula to calculate the magnetic susceptibility and tried to give answer on the basis of force that why the level of liquid rises up in the presence of the external magnetic field. When a substance is placed…

## Modifification of Ampere’s Circuital Law, Displacement Current

This lecture includes the formulation for the modified Ampere’s Circuital Law. 1. Part From the continuity equation, we have seen that if the nature of current is DC, then divergence of the current density j is zero. It means the magnitude of the current is…

## How to find magnetic force on a current carrying conductor

Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Conductor When charged moving particles are placed in a magnetic field, they experience a magnetic force given by the Lorentz force equation. This states that the magnetic force felt by a charged particle is equal to the product of…

## How to study Cyclotron for class 12 physics part-3

It is a device developed by Lawrence and Livingstone and is used to accelerate charged particles like protons and deuterons. This results in the production of high energy beam which is then used for artificial disintegration, etc. It consists of two D shaped metal boxes…

## What is Magnetization and Magnetic Intensity?

To explain the type of magnetic material and its behavior in the presence of external magnetic field the concept of magnetization play an important role. How the magnetization can be understand and further the intensity of magnetization is explained here in this video which I…

## What is Voltage Source in Electric Circuits?

An ideal voltage source explanation its equivalence and way to explain in terms of terminal points of view. Its representations and basic form defined.

## How to find Normalization Constant of a Wave Function & Physical Meaning

This problem is related to the particle in a box or in an infinite potential well. Particle representation by a wave function that is mathematical function no physical significance of that. How to find it for the given dimensions, means within the potential well? Explained…

## The Pauli’s Exclusion Principle/Graduate Quantum Physics Online

The Pauli’s Exclusion Principle is explained with examples, Anti symmetric wave function for identical particles/Graduate Quantum Physics Online

## The Symmetry Character of Various Particles/ Graduate Physics Online

The Symmetry Character of Various Particles, electron, proton, positron, neutron, muon, alpha particle, He atom, photon and deutron/ Graduate Physics Online

## Exchange Forces & The Helium Atom|Quantum Mechanics Graduate Physics

Exchange Forces & The Helium Atom|Quantum Mechanics Graduate Physics How to write anti symmetric eigen function for a quantum system, example of helium atom.

## Gauss’s Law in Electrostatics

The Gauss law is used to study the electric flux and electric field in terms of its application. The point which is necessary to keep in mind is about to the surface. The surface is closed or open it matters for physical interpretation. Using some supporting…

## Displacement Current and Ampere’s law

Displacement current you can understand by the time-varying electric field. Similar as in the Faraday’s law you have used the time-varying magnetic field to produce the EMF. Now the question is why do you need to define this displacement current and what is it? Is…